When Transporting In London, You Must Wear A Mask

When transporting in London, you must wear a mask - The Masks or face coverings must be worn on London's transport teh masks was not prepared to put Tube, bus and other transport users at risk by relaxing the rules on face coverings. Face masks have been mandatory on public transport for the past year to reduce the spread of the virus covid-19.

Virus Covid-19


But those rules will be replaced with government guidance advising passengers to wear masks only on busy services.
England is removing most of its Covid restrictions next Monday, and while Prime Minister Boris Johnson has said he expects masks to be worn in crowded places, such as on a busy Tube train, their use will no longer be compulsory.


London was the first English city to insist on face coverings after Covid restrictions ease.
Other metro mayors have also joined calls for masks to be worn on public transport.
Face coverings must be worn on London's transport network despite restrictions easing on 19 July, London's mayor says.
Sadiq Khan said he was not prepared to put Tube, bus and other transport users at risk by relaxing the rules on face coverings.

Face masks have been mandatory on public transport for the past year to reduce the spread of the virus Covid-19.
But those rules will be replaced with government guidance advising passengers to wear masks only on busy services.
England is removing most of its Covid restrictions next Monday, and while Prime Minister Boris Johnson has said he expects masks to be worn in crowded places, such as on a busy Tube train, their use will no longer be compulsory.
London was the first English city to insist on face coverings after Covid restrictions ease.
Other metro mayors have also joined calls for masks to be worn on public transport.

Virus Covid-19 2021


Where will I have to carry on wearing a mask?
Mask wearing: 'It's a fight and we're in the middle'
Covid restrictions to ease but face masks remain
In Scotland, the mandatory use of face coverings will remain in place for "some time", First Minister Nicola Sturgeon has said, even after the country eases most of its other restrictions on 19 July.
The rules for masks apply in shops and public transport - as well as pubs and restaurants when not seated.

media captionSadiq Khan explains why masks will remain compulsory on London's transport
In Wales, masks will continue to be required by law in some settings. The Welsh government has said face coverings would still be mandatory on public transport and in health and social care settings.
Mr Khan has made face masks a condition of carriage for the Tube, bus, tram, DLR, Overground and TfL Rail.
This means that, despite the easing of restrictions on 19 July, it will be listed as a condition in a legal agreement between.

Transport for London (TfL) and its customers.
Face coverings will also be required in taxis and private hire vehicles by both drivers and passengers unless they are exempt.
Mr Khan said: "We know from the government's own advisors and from the World Health Organisation, that wearing a face covering indoors does reduce transmissions.
"It leads to greater public safety and greater public confidence as well.

England lockdown rules to end on 19 July
Firms left to decide own rules on face masks
"As long as the virus is still with us, and as long as we're still concerned about the virus being transmitted, we will make it compulsory."
He said he was "confident you will see from Monday high levels of the rules being followed just like there have been since last June".
TfL's 400 enforcement officers will deny those without a face covering from using London transport, under the plan.
TfL staff and bus drivers will continue to remind passengers that masks are a requirement, Mr Khan said.
Greater Manchester Mayor Andy Burnham has said he will not '"rule out" mandating face masks on public transport.
id adding to people's confusion.

The reaction from commuters has been pretty unanimous - the message over masks is mixed and confusing.
Now, for example, at many merged stations in London - like Barking, Richmond, Wimbledon & Shepherd's Bush - you could go from a rail service where masks are personal choice, to a TfL service where they are a condition of carriage.
Sometimes different services even use the same the platform.

So you'll have to become very adept at differentiating a TfL rail service from a national rail one.
For an industry that is trying to become more uniform, standardised and is meant to be about making fares and interchanges easier, it's a complete mess.
The rail industry says masks will put people off using public transport - polling in London says the opposite.
The question now is, will other mayors and train operators follow London's example?
Or could a simple single rule for all public transport emerge, even at this late stage?

A poll from the travel watchdog TransportFocus found 56% of Londoners said say they will not use public transport "unless passengers are required to wear a face covering".

The legal requirement to wear a face covering in shops, public transport and other enclosed public spaces will end on 19 July. It will be replaced with government guidance.
A government spokeswoman stressed there would be a shift from "universal government diktat to relying on people's personal responsibility".
"The guidance is clear that people are expected and recommended to wear a mask when they come into contact with people they don't normally meet in enclosed and crowded spaces," she said.

Transport Secretary Grant Shapps said the rules were "just common sense when you think about it" as "you would be in a crowded area" on London transport.
Labour has said it is "irresponsible" to drop the legal requirement to wear masks.

'Ludicrous position'
The move has been welcomed by the RMT union, which represents rail workers. It said the approach was consistent with the rules that are currently in place in Scotland, Wales and on Eurostar services to the continent.
However, it said: "We now have the ludicrous position where a passenger travelling through London will have different rules on the Tube and the mainline services."
Mr Shapps said: "We've seen lots of these rules being different in different parts of the UK.
"The same way you can't drink alcohol on London transport systems, but you can on some long distance journeys."

Masks To Covid


From 2 May to 29 May 2021, 86% of TfL customers said they were wearing face coverings at all times on public transport.
Of the 14% not wearing a face covering at all times or not at all, almost three-quarters (74%) claim to have an exemption or good reason under the current regulations for not doing so, TfL research shows.
Andy Byford, London's Transport Commissioner, said: "The transport network is cleaner than ever, with an enhanced cleaning regime, hospital grade cleaning products, widely-available hand sanitizer and UV light fittings on escalator handrails to kill viruses.

"It is great news that regular independent testing for the virus by Imperial College has found no trace on our services, and we are now ready to safely welcome back more and more customers from 19 July as people head out to enjoy all that the capital has to offer."
Where will I have to carry on wearing a mask?
Passengers on London's transport network must continue wearing masks, even after it stops being law to do so in England.
London Mayor Sadiq Khan has said face coverings will still be mandatory on the Tube and the city's bus and rail network, despite the easing of restrictions from 19 July.
Scotland and Wales have also confirmed that face coverings will remain compulsory.

How are face covering rules changing in England?
The legal requirement to wear a face covering in shops, public transport and other enclosed public spaces will end on 19 July. It will be replaced with government guidance.
Prime Minister Boris Johnson said the government "expects and recommends" that face coverings are worn in crowded and enclosed spaces. Labour has said it is "irresponsible" to drop the legal requirement to wear masks.
The shop-workers' union Usdaw says masks should continue to be mandatory for shoppers, to protect staff.
Waterstones has said that its staff will keep wearing face coverings after the rules change, and that it will encourage its customers to do so as well.

Why will the rules be different on London transport?
Individual businesses and travel operators - such as Sadiq Khan, who runs London's transport network - can impose their own rules.
Greater Manchester's mayor Andy Burnham says he isn't ruling out introducing similar requirements on the city's tram network.
British Airways, EasyJet, Virgin and Ryanair, have also said masks will still be required for air travel.

What are the rules in Scotland?
The mandatory wearing of face coverings will remain in place "in all likelihood" for some time to come, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon has said.
The rules will still apply in shops and public transport after Scotland moves to Covid protection level 0 on 19 July - as well as in pubs and restaurants when not seated.
Ms Sturgeon said it would give "added protection and assurance" to people who were particularly vulnerable - as well as the population as a whole.
Covid restrictions to ease but face masks remain.

What are the rules in Wales?
Some Covid rules will ease in Wales on 17 July, when the country moves to alert level one. Most remaining rules will be lifted when the country moves to alert level zero on 7 August.
Face coverings will still be mandatory on public transport and in most indoor public places and health and social care settings at alert level one.
Face coverings will no longer be mandatory in hospitality settings such as pubs and restaurants at alert level zero.
Most Covid rules set to be lifted in Wales in August

What are the rules in Northern Ireland?
Some rules could be relaxed on 26 July - subject to 22 July approval.
From 26 July, face coverings will no longer be compulsory in places of worship or for students in school classrooms in the new term. They will remain mandatory on public transport and in shops and hospitality venues.
It's thought ministers will discuss whether to drop the wider requirements to wear face coverings at the the executive's meeting on 12 August.

What can I do as NI's Covid restrictions ease?
What have scientists and doctors said?
England's chief medical officer Chris Whitty and chief scientific adviser Sir Patrick Vallance said they will continue to wear face coverings:
indoors, in any situation which is crowded, or where people are close together
if asked to by any "competent authority"

if someone else was uncomfortable, as a "common courtesy"
media captionProf Chris Whitty and Sir Patrick Vallance explain when they'll still use face masks
The British Medical Association, which represents doctors is calling for the continued use of masks and new ventilation standards.

Why is social distancing coming to an end?
What if I refuse to wear a face covering?
You could be refused service, entry or the right to travel if a firm enforces a requirement to wear a face covering.
Companies decide their own health and safety measures and insisting on masks could be a reasonable rule, says Adam Wagner, a barrister at Doughty Street Chambers.
If you took your mask off once inside a building or train, staff would also have the right to ask you to leave.
Woman in a mask waiting for a train

However, they would not be able to discriminate against protected characteristics, as outlined in the Equality Act 2010.
So, if you are currently exempt from wearing a mask, companies would probably have to continue to honour that exemption, says Mr Wagner.
Why use a face covering?
Evidence suggests transmission predominantly happens indoors where people are close together.
Face coverings worn over the nose and mouth reduce the spread of coronavirus droplets from coughs, sneezes and speaking.

The main purpose is to protect others from Covid, rather than yourself. If everyone wears one, the risks drop for all.
There is some evidence they offer protection to wearers, but are not a replacement for social distancing and hand-washing.
Masks can also help reduce virus spread from contagious people with no symptoms.
Cutting virus transmission is important because many people are still not yet fully vaccinated.
Also, some new virus variants appear more transmissible than earlier Covid strains.

How not to war your mask: DO NOT leave your nose uncovered; DO NOT wear on your forehead; DO NOT wear it around your chin; DO NOT wear loose-fitting masks; DO NOT touch front of mask; DO NOT share your mask
Presentational white space
What sort of face covering is best?
Make sure it:

has a nose wire
has at least two/three layers of material
fits snugly over mouth, nose and chin
The highest level of protection is provided by FFP3 (or similar) masks worn by healthcare workers in high risk settings.
Trained staff need to fit them correctly. They are worn in conjunction with other personal protective equipment (gloves, aprons, eye protection).
A recent study by Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust found FFP3 masks provided up to 100% protection against Covid.

Two types of mask compared: a FFP3 respirator mask and a surgical mask
Staff wearing standard issue surgical masks, as recommended in official guidance for most situations, were much more likely to catch the virus.
Members of the public can buy FFP3 masks, but they won't provide the highest protection unless fitted correctly

Mask wearing: 'It's a fight and we're in the middle'
London's key workers and commuters have reacted to conflicting advice and changes to rules around the wearing of masks being introduced on Monday.
The prime minister has said the government would "expect and recommend" face coverings to be worn in enclosed and crowded places, but it will no longer be mandatory from 19 July. However, London mayor Sadiq Khan said he was not prepared to put Tube, bus and other transport users at risk by relaxing the rules on face masks.

Wearing face coverings has been mandatory on public transport for the past year to reduce the spread of the virus.
El Koulibaly has four children and has worked for nearly 15 years as a driver on the Docklands Light Railway (DLR). He said masks offered protection to him and his family.
"The prime minister says that it's not compulsory. The mayor says it is compulsory. It's going to be a fight between them isn't it? We are in the middle," he said.
"Even though the train is empty, people come to sit behind you. I don't want somebody standing behind me to start coughing.

"My job is to take the train from one end to another end. I don't want to go sick. If I do, the trains are not going to move," he added.
Ermias Abraham has been a bus driver for 11 years and does not believe the wearing of masks will be forever.
"I know people might not feel comfortable wearing masks to work every day, it's as if you're losing you privacy," he said.

"But we are in a very difficult situation.
"It's good to have it and be safe, instead of taking it off and one person might catch it. For quite some time, until this pandemic is cleared, it doesn't kill you to wear a mask."
Allie, who did not want to be pictured, felt that people needed to be told to wear a mask.
"If there's a rule people will follow it. But if it's optional, it's too confusing and you can't really enforce anything," she said.
"Public transport can get really crowded and it's not always well ventilated and cases of the new variant are going up, so I think it would be madness just to scrap it."

Abidemi Joshua disagreed and felt people should have a choice. "If I really want to wear it, fine. If I don't want to wear it, fine," she said.
But she added wearing one now felt "important".
"For the government to be saying we should stop wearing the masks on the train and on the bus, I think it's very risky because unlike before, when you sat on the bus you had to sit alone, now people have to sit beside you," she said.
William Apawu, who works as a cleaner at Woolwich Arsenal DLR station, agreed it was a matter of personal choice.

"I think it's the best way to prevent the spread of the virus," he said.
"Although it might be stressful putting it on for a longer period of time, I think we've got no other option than to put it on to prevent the spread of disease.
"It's better than being infected by the virus."

Covid restrictions to ease but face masks remain
Scotland is to move to level zero of Covid restrictions on 19 July, but mandatory use of face coverings is to remain in place for "some time".
First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said the planned easing had to be modified due to the spread of the Delta variant.
The move to level zero means more people will be allowed to meet indoors and attend weddings and funerals.
However, limits on outdoor meetings are to be maintained, and the return of workers to offices is to be delayed.

Ms Sturgeon said "sensible precautions" had to be maintained while the vaccine programme continues.
She said she still hoped Scotland could move beyond level zero from 9 August - the point at which the government aimed to scrap most legal restrictions.
Ministers also plan to remove the blanket requirement for close contacts of those who test positive to self-isolate - as long as they have had two doses of vaccine - at that point.

Ms Sturgeon said a decision would be made before the new academic term on whether or not school pupils who are the close contacts of positive cases will have to self-isolate.
And fully-vaccinated people returning from amber list countries will not need to quarantine as of Monday, as long as they take a test after arrival.
However, the first minister told MSPs that mandatory precautions like the mandatory wearing of face coverings and guidance on ventilation and hand hygiene would remain in place "for some time".

Ms Sturgeon added: "We must stick to a cautious approach. We are easing restrictions next week, but we are not abandoning them.
"And even when we move beyond level zero, we will continue to require some baseline measures such as face coverings."
Scotland has been hit by a record-breaking third wave of Covid-19 cases in recent weeks, with the faster-spreading Delta variant putting pressure on health services.

Ms Sturgeon told MSPs - who were recalled for a virtual session despite Holyrood being in recess - that the spike in infections had "levelled off", and that the vaccine programme was weakening the link between case number and severe illnesses.
She said "a gradual approach" to easing restrictions stood the best chance of being sustainable and of minimising loss of life.
Nicola Sturgeon made her strategy clear when she said "I will always err on the side of going more cautiously".

England is returning towards normality at a quicker rate, and UK ministers have conceded this could result in very high case numbers.
But Nicola Sturgeon wants to emphasis restraint. She mentioned a couple of times that she will not take the easy option "for good headlines".
A statement aimed at Boris Johnson? He of course maintains his changes for England are the right moves at the right time.
Despite the cautious tone, most level zero changes are going ahead in Scotland from next week as planned.

An obvious point of divergence from England is face coverings.
While laws around face coverings in England will be repealed shortly (they'll still be encouraged), Nicola Sturgeon made clear they'll stay here "for as long as necessary".
It feels like they'll be one of the last measures to go.
The move to level zero means:
Up to eight adults from four households can meet indoors at home, and up to 10 can meet in a pub or restaurant - with no need to pre-book a two-hour slot.
Up to 15 people from 15 households can meet outdoors, and up to 200 can attend weddings and funerals.
Plans have, however, been modified in light of high case numbers:

Hospitality venues will be required to close at midnight.
Some physical distancing rules are to be maintained outdoors, with different groups of 15 required to stay at least 1m (3ft 3in) apart in public spaces - meaning there may be limits on some outdoor events.
A "gradual" return to office working was due to be part of the move to level zero, but this has now been put back to 9 August.
Ms Sturgeon said the move was "not a complete and wholesale lifting of all restrictions", but it said it "does restore yet more freedom to all of us".

What has the reaction been?
Business groups broadly welcomed the changes, but some were critical of ministers "moving the goalposts" at the last minute by altering their plans.
The Scottish Retail Consortium said firms "will be reassured the sense of progress is being maintained, even if the pace has slowed".
The Federation of Small Businesses Scotland said no longer requiring people to book a slot in a bar or restaurant "should hopefully generate some extra passing trade", but said there was "less good news" for the events sector with outdoor restrictions to continue.

And the Scottish Chambers of Commerce said the move to level zero was "another encouraging milestone", but said the modifications to plans would cause uncertainty - and said postponing the return to offices would be "a bitter blow for employees and employers alike".
The virtual session of parliament gave opposition politicians the chance to question the first minister about the plans.
Scottish Conservative leader Douglas Ross said "we can't continue asking the public to sacrifice so much of their lives".
He said: "The balance has to tilt further in favour of moving forward - we have to make progress back to normality. The public have done what was expected of them, now it's time for this SNP government to deliver."

Labour's Anas Sarwar said the changes to restrictions were welcome, but said "inconsistent decision making and communications" was hitting the response to the pandemic. He said: "The high rate of cases is a cause for concern and I'm afraid what the first minister has presented today is not a clear strategy to cope with the new phase of the pandemic."
Scottish Green co-leader Lorna Slater said she had "concerns about reducing restrictions while case numbers are so high", voicing fears that it could lead to a vaccine-resistant variant emerging.
And outgoing Scottish Lib Dem leader Willie Rennie said changes to self-isolation rules must be made "urgently", with "thousands of key workers" having to quarantine despite testing negative.

In Scotland, the mandatory use of face coverings will remain in place for "some time", First Minister Nicola Sturgeon has said, even after the country eases most of its other restrictions on 19 July.
The rules for masks apply in shops and public transport - as well as pubs and restaurants when not seated.

media captionSadiq Khan explains why masks will remain compulsory on London's transport
In Wales, masks will continue to be required by law in some settings. The Welsh government has said face coverings would still be mandatory on public transport and in health and social care settings.
Scotland is to move to level zero of Covid restrictions on 19 July, but mandatory use of face coverings is to remain in place for "some time".

First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said the planned easing had to be modified due to the spread of the Delta variant.
The move to level zero means more people will be allowed to meet indoors and attend weddings and funerals.
However, limits on outdoor meetings are to be maintained, and the return of workers to offices is to be delayed.
Ms Sturgeon said "sensible precautions" had to be maintained while the vaccine programme continues.
She said she still hoped Scotland could move beyond level zero from 9 August - the point at which the government aimed to scrap most legal restrictions.

Live: Latest from Nicola Sturgeon's Holyrood statement
What rules are changing and when?
Covid in Scotland: Where are the latest cases?
Ministers also plan to remove the blanket requirement for close contacts of those who test positive to self-isolate - as long as they have had two doses of vaccine - at that point.

Ms Sturgeon said a decision would be made before the new academic term on whether or not school pupils who are the close contacts of positive cases will have to self-isolate.
And fully-vaccinated people returning from amber list countries will not need to quarantine as of Monday, as long as they take a test after arrival.
However, the first minister told MSPs that mandatory precautions like the mandatory wearing of face coverings and guidance on ventilation and hand hygiene would remain in place "for some time".
Ms Sturgeon added: "We must stick to a cautious approach. We are easing restrictions next week, but we are not abandoning them.
"And even when we move beyond level zero, we will continue to require some baseline measures such as face coverings."

Scotland has been hit by a record-breaking third wave of Covid-19 cases in recent weeks, with the faster-spreading Delta variant putting pressure on health services.
Ms Sturgeon told MSPs - who were recalled for a virtual session despite Holyrood being in recess - that the spike in infections had "levelled off", and that the vaccine programme was weakening the link between case number and severe illnesses.
She said "a gradual approach" to easing restrictions stood the best chance of being sustainable and of minimising loss of life.
Nicola Sturgeon made her strategy clear when she said "I will always err on the side of going more cautiously".
England is returning towards normality at a quicker rate, and UK ministers have conceded this could result in very high case numbers.

But Nicola Sturgeon wants to emphasis restraint. She mentioned a couple of times that she will not take the easy option "for good headlines".
A statement aimed at Boris Johnson? He of course maintains his changes for England are the right moves at the right time.
Despite the cautious tone, most level zero changes are going ahead in Scotland from next week as planned.
An obvious point of divergence from England is face coverings.
While laws around face coverings in England will be repealed shortly (they'll still be encouraged), Nicola Sturgeon made clear they'll stay here "for as long as necessary".
It feels like they'll be one of the last measures to go.

Presentational grey line
The move to level zero means:
Up to eight adults from four households can meet indoors at home, and up to 10 can meet in a pub or restaurant - with no need to pre-book a two-hour slot.
Up to 15 people from 15 households can meet outdoors, and up to 200 can attend weddings and funerals.
Plans have, however, been modified in light of high case numbers:

Hospitality venues will be required to close at midnight.
Some physical distancing rules are to be maintained outdoors, with different groups of 15 required to stay at least 1m (3ft 3in) apart in public spaces - meaning there may be limits on some outdoor events.
A "gradual" return to office working was due to be part of the move to level zero, but this has now been put back to 9 August.
Ms Sturgeon said the move was "not a complete and wholesale lifting of all restrictions", but it said it "does restore yet more freedom to all of us".

What has the reaction been?
Business groups broadly welcomed the changes, but some were critical of ministers "moving the goalposts" at the last minute by altering their plans.
The Scottish Retail Consortium said firms "will be reassured the sense of progress is being maintained, even if the pace has slowed".

The Federation of Small Businesses Scotland said no longer requiring people to book a slot in a bar or restaurant "should hopefully generate some extra passing trade", but said there was "less good news" for the events sector with outdoor restrictions to continue.
And the Scottish Chambers of Commerce said the move to level zero was "another encouraging milestone", but said the modifications to plans would cause uncertainty - and said postponing the return to offices would be "a bitter blow for employees and employers alike".

The virtual session of parliament gave opposition politicians the chance to question the first minister about the plans.
Scottish Conservative leader Douglas Ross said "we can't continue asking the public to sacrifice so much of their lives".
He said: "The balance has to tilt further in favour of moving forward - we have to make progress back to normality. The public have done what was expected of them, now it's time for this SNP government to deliver."
Labour's Anas Sarwar said the changes to restrictions were welcome, but said "inconsistent decision making and communications" was hitting the response to the pandemic.

He said: "The high rate of cases is a cause for concern and I'm afraid what the first minister has presented today is not a clear strategy to cope with the new phase of the pandemic."
Scottish Green co-leader Lorna Slater said she had "concerns about reducing restrictions while case numbers are so high", voicing fears that it could lead to a vaccine-resistant variant emerging.
And outgoing Scottish Lib Dem leader Willie Rennie said changes to self-isolation rules must be made "urgently", with "thousands of key workers" having to quarantine despite testing negative.

Mr Khan has made face masks a condition of carriage for the Tube, bus, tram, DLR, Overground and TfL Rail.
This means that, despite the easing of restrictions on 19 July, it will be listed as a condition in a legal agreement between Transport for London (TfL) and its customers. Face coverings will also be required in taxis and private hire vehicles by both drivers and passengers unless they are exempt.
Mr Khan said: "We know from the government's own advisors and from the World Health Organisation, that wearing a face covering indoors does reduce transmissions.
"It leads to greater public safety and greater public confidence as well.

England lockdown rules to end on 19 July
England will move to the final stage of easing Covid restrictions on 19 July, ministers have confirmed.
It means almost all legal restrictions on social contact will be removed.
But the prime minister said it was vital to proceed with "caution", warning "this pandemic is not over" .
The peak of the current wave is not expected before mid-August and could lead to between 1,000 and 2,000 hospital admissions per day, according to government scientists.

Central estimates from modellers advising the government also show that Covid deaths are expected to be between 100 and 200 per day at the peak, although there is a large amount of uncertainty.
What changes will I see when restrictions end on 19 July?
How are the rules on masks changing on 19 July?
Why is social distancing coming to an end?
'For us it's not freedom day'
Earlier, the health secretary told the House of Commons cases could reach 100,000 a day later in the summer but he did not believe this would put "unsustainable pressure on the NHS".

Vaccinations had created a "protective wall", which would mean we could "withstand a summer wave", Sajid Javid added.
Boris Johnson later told a Downing Street press conference that coronavirus "continues to carry risks for you and your family".
"We cannot simply revert instantly from Monday July 19 to life as it was before Covid," he said.
The prime minister added that he hoped the roadmap would be "irreversible" but "in order to have that, it has also got to be a cautious approach".
While virtually all legal restrictions will be lifted, some guidance will remain.

For example, the legal requirement to wear face coverings in some enclosed public places will be removed but Mr Javid said they were still "expected and recommended" in crowded indoor areas.
Nightclubs will also be allowed to reopen for the first time since March 2020 and capacity limits will be removed for all venues and events.
There will no longer be any limits on how many people can meet and the 1m-plus distancing rule will be removed.
But nightclubs and other venues with large crowds will be encouraged to use Covid status certification - so-called domestic vaccine passports - "as a matter of social responsibility", the prime minister said.
These would allow people to show they are double-jabbed, have had a negative test result or have natural immunity after recovering from Covid-19, using the NHS app.

In guidance published after the press conference, the government said it "reserves the right" to make certification mandatory in certain venues if necessary in the future.
Government guidance to work from home where possible will be lifted, but ministers are encouraging a gradual return to the workplace.
Mr Javid also said people should act with "personal responsibility" and "try to meet people outside where possible".
The requirement to self-isolate if you are contacted by NHS Test and Trace will remain in place until 16 August, when it will be relaxed for people who are fully vaccinated and for the under-18s. If someone tests positive for the virus they will still be legally required to self-isolate.

Wales is due to review its restrictions on 15 July, while Scotland is expected to move to level 0 - the lowest level of restrictions in its roadmap - on 19 July and lift most legal restrictions on 9 August. Northern Ireland is due to ease some Covid measures on 26 July.
Freedom Day, as it has been dubbed, is on.
But make no mistake this is not where England - and the rest of the UK for that matter - hoped it would be.

Hospital admissions will almost certainly rise above 1,000 a day in the coming weeks - similar to what the NHS would see in the depths of winter for all types of respiratory infection.
It's not enough to overwhelm the NHS, but it does mean less non-Covid care.
However, infection rates were always going to rise at this point of the unlocking and so the big question is when and at what point this wave will peak.
There's huge uncertainty about this. Small things can make a big difference, including how people behave.

That's why government scientists have pushed behind the scenes for ministers to change tone on mask-wearing in crowded indoor places - if nothing else it reinforces the message that infection rates still do matter.
But those same scientists are also in broad agreement that now is the best time, rather than wait until the autumn when other viruses like flu begin to circulate. The decision is a gamble, but it's a calculated one, they say.
England's chief medical officer Prof Chris Whitty said the "overwhelming view" of the scientific community was that moving "slowly" through the next step of easing restrictions was "essential".

"The slower we take it, the fewer people will have Covid, the smaller the peak will be, and the smaller the number of people who go into hospital and die," he said. By moving slowly, he said modelling suggested the pressure on the NHS would not be "unsustainable".
Prof Whitty said there was less agreement on the "ideal date" to lift restrictions as there is "no such thing as an ideal date" .
However, he said a further delay would mean opening up when schools return in autumn, or in winter, when the virus has an advantage and hospitals are under more pressure.
He added that while the numbers of people being admitted to hospital with Covid were "not trivial", they were rising at a much lower rate than previous waves.

Labour criticised the government's approach to unlocking on 19 July as "high risk" and "fatalistic".
Shadow health secretary Jonathan Ashworth told MPs in the Commons: "Instead of caution [the health secretary] is putting his foot down the on the accelerator while throwing the seat belt off."
"That means potentially thousands [of people] suffering debilitating Long Covid. It means, as more cases arise, potentially more escape and the threat of new more transmissible variants emerging," he added.
The British Chambers of Commerce said many businesses would be "sighing with relief" to get the green light to reopen but they "still don't have the full picture they desperately need to properly plan for unlocking".

Claire Walker, co-executive director, said: "Business leaders aren't public health experts and cannot be expected to know how best to operate when confusing and sometimes contradictory advice is coming from official sources."
On Monday, the UK recorded 34,471 new cases, as well as six deaths within 28 days of a positive test.
It is the sixth consecutive day cases have been above 30,000.

The number of deaths recorded on Mondays are often lower due to reporting lags over the weekend.
More than 45.9 million people - or 87% of adults in the UK - have now had at least one dose of a Covid-19 vaccine. And more than 34.8 million - around two-thirds of adults - have had both doses.
The final stage of England's roadmap out of lockdown, which was originally scheduled for 21 June, was delayed to allow more people to be vaccinated.
Mr Javid said the government was "on track" to beat its target to offer every adult a first dose by 19 July.

Firms left to decide own rules on face masks
From Monday 19 July the government has said wearing face coverings in England will be recommended but not mandatory.
It says bus and train companies must now decide whether passengers have to continue to wear face coverings, with rules being replaced by government guidance advising passengers to wear masks only on busy services.

Some airlines have already confirmed face masks will still be compulsory after 19 July, while other businesses, including shops, pubs and hairdressers, are setting out updated policies.
So, following government confirmation of the easing of rules, what are businesses' intentions?
Some pubs and leisure firms to encourage mask wearing but not enforce it
Martin Dalby chief executive of Center Parcs said masks would be encouraged for both staff and customers in the indoor sections of its holiday parks.

"The approach from Center Parcs will be to recommend that both our employees and our customers do wear face coverings when in indoor settings - that's the advice we're going to give them." But he added: "It's not mandatory and we won't be policing it."'
He also said they would not be asking for a Covid passport, proving vaccination status.
Clive Watson, chief executive of the City Pub Group, which has 45 pubs across the south of England and Wales, has said masks will be encouraged after 19 July and as much table service as possible will continue: "We don't want a free-for-all scrum at the bar, loads of people queuing up."

Staff will also be encouraged to continue to wear masks.
However, Chris Jowsey, chief executive of Admiral Taverns, which has 1,000 pubs, has said the lifting of all restrictions is "long overdue". He adds that 19 July will "be critical for the future of our industry, supporting community hubs across the UK and allowing businesses to operate as normal once again".
Shops remain cautious
The boss of the Timpson shoe repair and key cutting chain, Sir John Timpson, says he will leave mask wearing as a matter of personal choice for his customers: "I don't think the way it's going we've got any right, we shouldn't expect them to do so, that's entirely up to the customer."

But he said his staff would be asked to wear masks.
"We will certainly advise them that what they should be doing as far as masks are concerned is to do the right thing to look after our customers - and that means wearing a mask when customers are within the shop.
"The wearing of masks is not mainly to protect yourself, it is to protect other people, and I think that we've still got to do that even though there's no legal requirement to do so."
Shop workers union Usdaw had previously urged the government not to lift Covid safety measures in shops.

"Retail staff are working with the public every day and are deeply worried about catching Covid-19," said Paddy Lillis, Usdaw general secretary.
"This is not the right time to water down safety in stores and the government should not be removing the requirements for face coverings and distancing in busy public areas like shops."
Sainsbury's boss Simon Roberts has said mask wearing in stores will be a matter of "personal choice" after 19 July. And the Westfield shopping centre group has said it will "encourage" customers to wear masks.
The focus on masks is disproportionate to the impact they can have. Retaining mask-wearing is not going to significantly alter the course of the rising infections.

The fact remains the most important measure is for people to isolate when ill.
Instead, the debate is symbolic of a wider issue - the importance of communication and messaging.
There's real frustration among government scientists about the mixed messaging coming out on masks as they fear it gives the impression we no longer need to be careful.
That's not true because how quickly normal behaviour returns - and that means everything from ditching masks and returning to the office as well as clubbing - makes a big difference to the summer wave.

An immediate return to normal could make the peak of hospital admissions twice as high as a more gradual return.
The modellers believe this is much more important than delaying the lifting of restrictions, which will have very limited impact on the peak.
It's why England's chief medical adviser Prof Chris Whitty was stressing the need to go slowly with the new freedoms - and why the way mask-wearing is communicated is crucial.

Beauty in the 'breathing zone'
Lesley Blair, chair of the British Association of Beauty Therapy and Cosmetology (BABTAC), a membership organisation and insurance provider for professionals working in the industry, would like mask wearing to continue. Ms Blair says that the organisation will encourage members to consider the the evidence as part of their risk assessments and continue to wear them "especially when working in the breathing zone".

Among smaller businesses, Joe Hemmings, who owns two hairdressers in Bristol, says he'll be taking a staged approach to mask wearing: "To go from all of the PPE to nothing overnight is too radical for the sheer fact of peoples' anxiety and the need for precaution."
Eight of his 17 staff are aged about 30 and won't have had their second jab by 19 July. "We need to make sure we can do everything we can to protect the team," he says.
If customers refuse to wear a mask, Mr Hemmings says "it's a tricky one" but he'll "have to honour" their decision. "We'd like to think it is everyone's best interest for us all to wear them inside," he adds.

Airlines: Little reason to change policy
Ryanair has said masks will be mandatory, regardless of the departing destination. A spokesperson added that this was in keeping with current guidance from the European Union Aviation Safety Agency and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

British Airways has also said it sees no reason yet to change its existing rules, requiring staff and customers to wear masks, but said it was keeping its policies under constant review.
EasyJet and Virgin have also told customers that passengers should continue to wear them.
Passengers flying with Jet2 will not be allowed to board their flight without a face mask, unless they have previously given a reason for not wearing one.

"As long as the virus is still with us, and as long as we're still concerned about the virus being transmitted, we will make it compulsory."
He said he was "confident you will see from Monday high levels of the rules being followed just like there have been since last June".
TfL's 400 enforcement officers will deny those without a face covering from using London transport, under the plan.

TfL staff and bus drivers will continue to remind passengers that masks are a requirement, Mr Khan said.
Greater Manchester Mayor Andy Burnham has said he will not '"rule out" mandating face masks on public transport.
Mr Burnham told the BBC he had not yet taken the decision to mandate masks on trams in Manchester and wanted to avoid adding to people's confusion.

Now, for example, at many merged stations in London - like Barking, Richmond, Wimbledon & Shepherd's Bush - you could go from a rail service where masks are personal choice, to a TfL service where they are a condition of carriage.
Sometimes different services even use the same the platform.
So you'll have to become very adept at differentiating a TfL rail service from a national rail one.

For an industry that is trying to become more uniform, standardised and is meant to be about making fares and interchanges easier, it's a complete mess.
The rail industry says masks will put people off using public transport - polling in London says the opposite.
The question now is, will other mayors and train operators follow London's example?
Or could a simple single rule for all public transport emerge, even at this late stage?

A poll from the travel watchdog TransportFocus found 56% of Londoners said say they will not use public transport "unless passengers are required to wear a face covering".
The legal requirement to wear a face covering in shops, public transport and other enclosed public spaces will end on 19 July. It will be replaced with government guidance.
A government spokeswoman stressed there would be a shift from "universal government diktat to relying on people's personal responsibility".
"The guidance is clear that people are expected and recommended to wear a mask when they come into contact with people they don't normally meet in enclosed and crowded spaces," she said.

Transport Secretary Grant Shapps said the rules were "just common sense when you think about it" as "you would be in a crowded area" on London transport.

Labour has said it is "irresponsible" to drop the legal requirement to wear masks.
'Ludicrous position'
The move has been welcomed by the RMT union, which represents rail workers. It said the approach was consistent with the rules that are currently in place in Scotland, Wales and on Eurostar services to the continent.

However, it said: "We now have the ludicrous position where a passenger travelling through London will have different rules on the Tube and the mainline services."
Mr Shapps said: "We've seen lots of these rules being different in different parts of the UK.
"The same way you can't drink alcohol on London transport systems, but you can on some long distance journeys."

From 2 May to 29 May 2021, 86% of TfL customers said they were wearing face coverings at all times on public transport.
Of the 14% not wearing a face covering at all times or not at all, almost three-quarters (74%) claim to have an exemption or good reason under the current regulations for not doing so, TfL research shows.

Andy Byford, London's Transport Commissioner, said: "The transport network is cleaner than ever, with an enhanced cleaning regime, hospital grade cleaning products, widely-available hand sanitizer and UV light fittings on escalator handrails to kill viruses.
"It is great news that regular independent testing for the virus by Imperial College has found no trace on our services, and we are now ready to safely welcome back more and more customers from 19 July as people head out to enjoy all that the capital has to offer."